Diabetes Oral Drugs – Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 – SGLT2 – Inhibitors

Diabetes medications fall into two broad classes: Oral Pills and Injectables. Oral pills fall into different classes of drugs depending upon the mode of action. We will be covering details about SGLT2 Inhibitors here.
Background

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors have been used in the treatment of Diabetes Type 2 since 2013.

Mode Of Action

SGLT2 inhibitors lower the threshold in the kidneys for excreting glucose, thus lowering the blood sugar level, while the urine sugar level will go up.

Other Benefits

Weight Loss

Side Effects
  1. Genital and urinary tract infections
  2. Diabetic ketoacidosis
  3. In combination with other diabetic drugs, it may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia.
  4. Kidney injury
  5. Dehydration
  6. Hyperkalemia
  7. Low blood pressure
  8. Increase in cholesterol

+ see FDA Warnings below

Contraindications
  1. Kidney disease (nephropathy)
  2. Those with a high amputation risk
  3. Osteoporosis
Brands, generic name in brackets:
  1. Foxiga ( Dapagliflozin)
  2. Invokana (Canagliflozin)
  3. Jardiance (Empagliflozin)
FDA Warnings
  1. Increased risk of a serious infections of the genital area (2018)
  2. Increased risk of leg and foot amputations (2017)
  3. Acidosis and serious urinary tract infections (2015)
  4. Increased risk for bone fracture (2015)
References

www.fda.gov, Blood Sugar 101 by Jenny Ruhl, www.diabetes.co.uk

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